The court in the Netherlands found charges of assault against Promes proven, but found there was no attempted murder or manslaughter, according to ESPN.
He must pay €7,000 [£5,973] in compensation to the victim.
Promes is also being prosecuted in the Netherlands for alleged involvement in drugs trafficking.
He is suspected of being involved with smuggling 1,360 kilograms of cocaine to the Netherlands or Belgium in two shipments in 2020.
Promes, formerly of Ajax, denied the charges but the court found there was enough evidence from two eyewitnesses and intercepted phone conversations to hand down a prison term.
The stabbing, to the leg, occurred at a family party at a warehouse in Abcoude after Promes got into an argument over a stolen necklace.
He was playing in the Netherlands for Ajax at the time but moved to Spartak in February 2021.
The judge criticised Promes, who is currently in Russia, for not coming to the court to defend himself or expressing any remorse.
His sentence would have been six months less had he done so. Promes can appeal the conviction.
Given he is in Russia, it’s unclear whether Promes will return to the Netherlands to serve his prison sentence.
According to NOS, there is no extradition agreement between Russia and the Netherlands, and it can only be requested if Promes fails with any appeal.
However, because of the drug trafficking allegations, Promes would be arrested if he sets foot in Europe or any country with an extradition treaty with the Netherlands.
The Amsterdam-born forward played 50 times for the Dutch national team, scoring seven goals.